Yom Kippur War of October 1973

The Yom Kippur War began on October 6, 1973 when the armies of Egypt and Syria attacked Israel across the Suez Canal and in the Golan Heights on the holiest day of the Jewish calendar. After a few days of torrid fighting, Egypt established itself on the eastern side of the Suez Canal and the Syrians captured most of the Golan. A counterattack by Israeli forces pushed back Egyptian forces, with the IDF crossing the Canal and approaching Cairo. On the Golan, Syrian forces were repulsed; the IDF captured an enclave in the northern Heights deep in Syrian territory and recaptured Mount Hermon.

A cease-fire agreement was signed by Israel and Egypt on October 24, 1973. The map shows the alignment of forces at the October 23 ceasefire.

A separation-of-forces agreement was signed on January 18, 1974. Both sides agreed to observe the cease-fire, arranged for reduction of forces and established a UN emergency force in the demilitarized zone. Israeli forces withdrew to 20 kilometers east of the Suez Canal, and Egypt’s army withdrew most forces west of the Suez Canal.

A disengagement agreement with Syria was signed in Geneva on May 31, 1974, including deployment of UN observers in the demilitarized zone, a prisoner exchange, and IDF evacuation of territory seized in the Yom Kippur War as well as the city of Kuneitra, captured in the Six-Day War.

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