Judea and Samaria are regions in the south and north heartland of Israel, with roots going back to Biblical times. Although Jews have a continuous presence here for millennia, their numbers increased dramatically following the Six Day War. The area has been a source of tension with the local Arab population who claim the land to be part of what they hope to make the future state of Palestine, though many chances have been missed, especially since the 2003 Oslo Accords, to exploit that opportunity.
Israel, in the southwestern corner of Asia and the southeast shore of the Mediterranean sea, has a population of over 9 million and a total area of just over 20,000 square kilometers (slightly more than 8000 square miles), ranks 150th among nations in geographical size and 99th in population size. Its population is 80% Jewish and 20% Muslim.